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Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Mar;17(3):907-22. doi: 10.1245/s10434-009-0779-8. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

CKS1B overexpression implicates clinical aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinomas but not p27(Kip1) protein turnover: an independent prognosticator with potential p27 (Kip1)-independent oncogenic attributes?

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Yuan's General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Through data mining the Stanford Microarray Database, the CKS1B transcript was found to be frequently upregulated in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with low alpha-fetal protein (AFP) expression. Together with SKP2, CKS1B is known to implicate p27(Kip1) protein turnover promoting cell-cycle progression.

METHODS:

CKS1B, p27(Kip1), and SKP2 were immunostained in 75 HCCs and correlated with clinicopathological features, local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and overall survival (OS). Silencing of CKS1B and SKP2 with interference short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) was performed in SK-Hep1 and Hep-3B cell lines.

RESULTS:

Immunohistochemically, increased CKS1B and SKP2, and attenuated p27(Kip1) were all associated with tumor multiplicity (P < 0.05) and increasing American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (P < 0.05). Overexpression of CKS1B significantly correlated with advanced Okuda stages (P = 0.048) and SKP2 overexpression (P = 0.047). Neither CKS1B nor SKP2 was inversely related to p27(Kip1), which was reinforced by no alteration in p27(Kip1) abundance in HCC-derived cells with CKS1B or SKP2 silencing. Both CKS1B overexpression (P = 0.0011 and P = 0.0017) and p27(Kip1) attenuation (P = 0.0079 and P = 0.0085) were predictive of OS and LRFS, respectively, while SKP2 overexpression was associated with worse OS alone (P = 0.0043). Combined assessment of CKS1B and p27(Kip1) was able to robustly distinguish three prognostically different groups (P < 0.0001). In multivariate comparison, CKS1B overexpression represented the strongest independent adverse prognosticator [OS, P = 0.0235, hazard ratio (HR): 4.193; LRFS, P = 0.0204, HR: 4.262], followed by p27(Kip1) attenuation (OS, P = 0.0320, HR: 2.553; LRFS, P = 0.0262, HR: 2.533).

CONCLUSIONS:

CKS1B protein overexpression in HCCs is implicated in clinical aggressiveness but not in p27(Kip1) turnover, implying presence of p27(Kip1)-independent oncogenic attributes. The combined assessment of CKS1B and p27(Kip1) immunoexpressions effectively risk-stratifies HCCs with different prognoses, which may aid in the management of this deadly malignancy.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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