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Am J Disaster Med. 2009 Jul-Aug;4(4):233-48.

Terrorist suicide bombings: lessons learned in Metropolitan Haifa from September 2000 to January 2006.

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  • 1Rambam Medical Center, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.



The threat of suicide bombing attacks has become a worldwide problem. This special type of multiple casualty incidents (MCI) seriously challenges the most experienced medical facilities.


The authors concluded a retrospective analysis of the medical management of victims from the six suicide bombing attacks that occurred in Metropolitan Haifa from 2000 to 2006.


The six terrorist suicide bombing attacks resulted in 411 victims with 69 dead (16.8 percent) and 342 injured. Of the 342 injured, there were 31 (9.1 percent) severely injured, seven (2.4 percent) moderately severely injured, and 304 (88.9 percent) mildly injured patients. Twenty four (77 percent) of the 31 severely injured victims were evacuated to the level I trauma center at Rambam Medical Center (RMC). Of the seven severely injured victims who were evacuated to the level II trauma centers (Bnai-Zion Medical Center and Carmel Medical Center) because of proximity to the detonation site, three were secondarily transferred to RMC after initial resuscitation. Eight of the 24 severely injured casualties, admitted to RMC, eventually died of their wounds. There was no in-hospital mortality in the level II trauma centers.


A predetermined metropolitan triage system which directs trauma victims of a MCI to the appropriate medical center and prevents overcrowding of the level I facility with less severe injured patients will assure that critically injured patients of a suicide bombing attack will receive a level of care that is comparable with the care given to similar patients under normal circumstances. Severe blast injury victims without penetrating injuries but with significant pulmonary damage can be effectively managed in ICUs of level II trauma centers.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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