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J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Oct;44(10):1892-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.03.039.

MNX1 (HLXB9) mutations in Currarino patients.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.



The combination of partial absence of the sacrum, anorectal anomalies, and presacral mass constitutes Currarino syndrome (CS), which is associated with mutations in MNX1 motor neuron and pancreas homeobox 1 (previously HLXB9). Here, we report on the MNX1 mutations found in a family segregating CS and in 3 sporadic CS patients, as well as on the clinical characteristics of the affected individuals.


MNX1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing the coding regions, intron/exon boundaries of MNX1 in 5 CS Japanese family members and 3 Chinese sporadic cases and their parents.


There were 2 novel (P18PfsX37, R243W) and 2 previously described (W288G and IVS2 + 1G > A) mutations. These mutations were not found in 198 control individuals and are predicted to impair the functioning of the MNX1 protein.


The variability of the CS phenotype among related or unrelated patients bearing the same mutation advocates for differences in the genetic background of each individual and invokes the implication of additional CS susceptibility genes.

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