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Circ Res. 2009 Oct 23;105(9):830-41. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.204974.

The emerging characterization of lysine residue deacetylation on the modulation of mitochondrial function and cardiovascular biology.

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  • 1Translational Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.


There is emerging recognition of a novel fuel and redox sensing regulatory program that controls cellular adaptation via nonhistone protein lysine residue acetyl posttranslation modifications. This program functions in tissues with high energy demand and oxidative capacity and is highly enriched in the heart. Deacetylation is regulated by NAD(+)-dependent activation of the sirtuin family of proteins, whereas acetyltransferase modifications are controlled by less clearly delineated acetyltransferases. Subcellular localization specific protein targets of lysine-acetyl modification have been identified in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Despite distinct subcellular localizations, these modifications appear, in large part, to modify mitochondrial properties including respiration, energy production, apoptosis, and antioxidant defenses. These mitochondrial regulatory programs are important in cardiovascular biology, although how protein acetyl modifications effects cardiovascular pathophysiology has not been extensively explored. This review will introduce the role of nonhistone protein lysine residue acetyl modifications, discuss their regulation and biochemistry and present the direct and indirect data implicating their involvement in the heart and vasculature.

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