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Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Dec;20(24):5236-49. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E08-12-1256.

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate GPCR-induced TACE/ADAM17-dependent transforming growth factor-alpha shedding.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Abstract

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by GPCRs regulates many important biological processes. ADAM metalloprotease activity has been implicated as a key step in transactivation, yet the regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigate the regulation of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) shedding by reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the ATP-dependent activation of the P2Y family of GPCRs. We report that ATP stimulates TGF-alpha proteolysis with concomitant EGFR activation and that this process requires TACE/ADAM17 activity in both murine fibroblasts and CHO cells. ATP-induced TGF-alpha shedding required calcium and was independent of Src family kinases and PKC and MAPK signaling. Moreover, ATP-induced TGF-alpha shedding was completely inhibited by scavengers of ROS, whereas calcium-stimulated shedding was partially inhibited by ROS scavenging. Hydrogen peroxide restored TGF-alpha shedding after calcium chelation. Importantly, we also found that ATP-induced shedding was independent of the cytoplasmic NADPH oxidase complex. Instead, mitochondrial ROS production increased in response to ATP and mitochondrial oxidative complex activity was required to activate TACE-dependent shedding. These results reveal an essential role for mitochondrial ROS in regulating GPCR-induced growth factor shedding.

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