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J Telemed Telecare. 2009;15(7):356-61. doi: 10.1258/jtt.2009.090401.

Telehealth in clinical supervision: a comparison of supervision formats.

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  • 1Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0017, USA.


Nine counselling psychology students were enrolled in a 12-week pilot practicum (i.e. a work placement) for either one hour of course credit (six students) or three hours (three students). Group supervision was provided both in-person and by videoconferencing. Each trainee completed a measure evaluating their satisfaction with supervision (Supervisory Satisfaction Questionnaire, SSQ) and the supervisory relationship (Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory-Trainee Version, SWAI-T). The student's self-efficacy was also tracked during the semester (Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory, COSE). Trainees rated their satisfaction with videoconferencing similarly to the in-person format. The supervisory relationship also did not appear to be affected by the videoconferencing format. The COSE scores indicated that the students increased in counsellor self-efficacy by the end of the semester. Trainees reported that their supervisory needs were met and believed that videoconferencing was a viable format for supervision, although such a format still needed to be augmented by in-person contact. Providing better access to supervision and professional support using technology is one step towards improving health care in rural areas.

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