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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010 Feb;30(2):255-66. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.203. Epub 2009 Oct 7.

Traumatic brain injury: an overview of pathobiology with emphasis on military populations.

Author information

  • 1National Security Technology Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland 20723, USA. ibolja.cernak@jhuapl.edu

Erratum in

  • J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010 Jun;30(6):1262.

Abstract

This review considers the pathobiology of non-impact blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT). The pathobiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been historically studied in experimental models mimicking features seen in the civilian population. These brain injuries are characterized by primary damage to both gray and white matter and subsequent evolution of secondary pathogenic events at the cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels, which collectively mediate widespread neurodegeneration. An emerging field of research addresses brain injuries related to the military, in particular blast-induced brain injuries. What is clear from the effort to date is that the pathobiology of military TBIs, particularly BINT, has characteristics not seen in other types of brain injury, despite similar secondary injury cascades. The pathobiology of primary BINT is extremely complex. It comprises systemic, local, and cerebral responses interacting and often occurring in parallel. Activation of the autonomous nervous system, sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver, and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms significantly contributing to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain.

PMID:
19809467
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2855235
Free PMC Article

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