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Toxicology. 1990 Dec 17;65(1-2):179-97.

Disposition and nephrotoxicity of 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (APD), in rats and mice.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, UK.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the disposition and the nephrotoxicity of 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (APD-pamidronate) in order to elucidate the mechanism of the non-linearity of the renal elimination of this drug. The fate of APD labelled with [14C]APD was studied in mice and rats for a range of doses (0.5-40 mg/kg) and indicators of renal function were monitored. In both species, the percentage of dose excreted during the first 24-h after treatment fell dramatically as a function of the dose. However, the renal burden of APD rose linearly for doses of APD below 10 mg/kg and increased non-linearly over this threshold. In contrast the concentration of APD in both bone and liver, which together account for a large proportion of the dose, appeared to increase proportionally with dose. There was no evidence, therefore, that the non-linear renal elimination of APD was due to an increased uptake of APD by tissues. Conversely, the significant fall in the renal excretion of APD was paralleled by a striking loss in body weight, and for high doses, by a fall in the creatinine clearance. An increased enzymuria suggested the loss of brush border membranes and the release of lysosomal contents by proximal tubular cells. Morphological studies confirmed this and revealed a focal proximal tubular necrosis 6 days post dosing. We conclude that the nephrotoxicity of APD accounts for the non-linear renal elimination of this drug.

PMID:
1980383
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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