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Antiviral Res. 2009 Dec;84(3):254-9. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.09.012. Epub 2009 Oct 1.

Antiviral evaluation of octadecyloxyethyl esters of (S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl nucleosides against herpesviruses and orthopoxviruses.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0676, USA.


Our previous studies showed that esterification of 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (HPMPA) or 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)-propyl]cytosine (HPMPC) with alkoxyalkyl groups such as hexadecyloxypropyl (HDP) or octadecyloxyethyl (ODE) resulted in large increases in antiviral activity and oral bioavailability. The HDP and ODE esters of HPMPA were shown to be active in cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), while HPMPA itself was virtually inactive. To explore this approach in greater detail, we synthesized four new compounds in this series, the ODE esters of 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)-propyl]guanine (HPMPG), 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]thymine (HPMPT), 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (HPMPDAP) and 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2-amino-6-cyclopropylaminopurine (HPMP-cPrDAP) and evaluated their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and vaccinia, cowpox and ectromelia. Against HSV-1, subnanomolar EC(50) values were observed with ODE-HPMPA and ODE-HPMPC while ODE-HPMPG had intermediate antiviral activity with an EC(50) of 40 nM. In HFF cells infected with HCMV, the lowest EC(50) values were observed with ODE-HPMPC, 0.9 nM. ODE-HPMPA was highly active with an EC(50) of 3 nM, while ODE-HPMPG and ODE-HPMPDAP were also highly active with EC(50)s of 22 and 77 nM, respectively. Against vaccinia and cowpox viruses, ODE-HPMPG and ODE-HPMPDAP were the most active and selective compounds with EC(50) values of 20-60 nM and selectivity index values of 600-3500. ODE-HPMPG was also active against ectromelia virus with an EC(50) value of 410 nM and a selectivity index value of 166. ODE-HPMPG and ODE-HPMPDAP are proposed for further preclinical evaluation as possible candidates for treatment of HSV, HCMV or orthopoxvirus diseases.

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