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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;653:48-57.

Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors: domain architecture and cellular signalling.

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  • 1Institute of Medical Microbiology, Giessen, Germany.


The innate immune system forms the first line of defense against pathogens. The Toll-like receptors and the Nod-like receptors are at the forefront of both extracellular and intracellular pathogen recognition. They recognize the most conserved structures of microbes and initiate the response to infection. In addition to the microbial stimuli, they are now also being implicated in the recognition of danger-associated stimuli, making them pivotal in disorders unrelated to microbial pathogenesis. Toll-like receptors and the Nod-like receptors share commonalities in structure, ligands and downstream signalling but they differ in their localization, and extent of influence on a wide variety of cellular processes including apoptosis. Here we discuss the common ligand recognition and signalling modules in both these classes of receptors.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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