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Surg Endosc. 2010 Apr;24(4):924-32. doi: 10.1007/s00464-009-0700-3. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

Long-term outcome of laparoscopic Nissen and laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a prospective, randomized trial.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, J45 OMB, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. John.Shaw@uct.ac.za



A prospective, randomized trial was performed to evaluate the long-term outcome and patient satisfaction of laparoscopic complete 360 degrees fundoplication compared with partial posterior 270 degrees fundoplication. Partial fundoplication is purported to have fewer side effects with a higher failure rate in controlling gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), while complete fundoplication is thought to result in more dysphagia and gas-related symptoms.


Patients were randomized to either laparoscopic Nissen (LN) or laparoscopic Toupet (LT) fundoplication. Esophageal manometry, 24-h pH studies, a detailed questionnaire, and a visual analog symptom (VAS) score were completed before and after surgery. A final global outcome questionnaire was performed. Failure was defined as recurrent GERD requiring revision surgery, maintenance proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, or surgery for postoperative dysphagia.


One hundred patients were randomized to LN (50) or LT (50). There were no differences between LN and LT with respect to postoperative symptoms and physiological variables except a higher wrap pressure in the LN group (15.2 vs. 12.0 mmHg). Dysmotility improved in 8/14 (57%) and 6/11 (54%) patients in the LN group and the LT group, respectively, after surgery. There was no correlation between dysmotility and dysphagia both pre- and post surgery in the two groups. Recurrent symptoms of GERD occurred in 8/47 (17.0%) and 8/48 (16.6%) in the LN group and the LT group, respectively. Outcome of patients with dysmotility was similar to those with normal motility in both groups. At final follow-up (59.76 + or - 24.23 months), in the LN group, 33/37 (89.1%) would recommend surgery to others, 32/37 (86.4%) would have repeat surgery, and 34/37 (91.8%) felt they were better off than before surgery. The corresponding numbers for the LT group (follow-up = 55.18 + or - 25.97 months) were 35/36 (97.2%), 30/36 (83.3%), and 33/36 (91.6%).


LN and LT are equally effective in restoring the lower esophageal sphincter function and provide similar long-term control of GERD with no difference in dysphagia. Esophageal dysmotility had no influence on the outcome of either operation.

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