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Int J Med Microbiol. 2010 Feb;300(2-3):142-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2009.08.017. Epub 2009 Sep 24.

The synthesis and function of the alarmone (p)ppGpp in firmicutes.

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  • 1Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Elfriede-Aulhorn-Strasse 6, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany. christiane.wolz@med.uni-tuebingen.de


In most bacteria, nutrient limitations provoke the stringent control by the rapid synthesis of the alarmones pppGpp and ppGpp. The most prominent and highly conserved reaction is the repression of rRNA synthesis. Additionally, (p)ppGpp synthesis is also linked to many other physiological changes involving gene activation/repression but also protein translation, enzyme activation and replication. Whereas much of the basic research was performed with Escherichia coli there is now growing evidence that in gram-positive bacteria there are fundamental differences in (p)ppGpp synthesis, regulation and molecular function. Here we will focus on basic differences between firmicutes and proteobacteria, particularly E. coli.

Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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