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Chem Soc Rev. 2009 Oct;38(10):2833-41. doi: 10.1039/b907749a. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Genetically encoded biosensors based on engineered fluorescent proteins.

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  • 1Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Fluorescent proteins have revolutionized cell biology by allowing researchers to non-invasively peer into the inner workings of cells and organisms. While the most common applications of fluorescent proteins are to image expression, localization, and dynamics of protein chimeras, there is a growing interest in using fluorescent proteins to create biosensors for minimally invasive imaging of concentrations of ions and small molecules, the activity of enzymes, and changes in the conformation of proteins in living cells. This tutorial review provides an overview of the progress made in the development of fluorescent protein-based biosensors to date.

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