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J Urol. 2009 Nov;182(5):2274-8. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.07.024. Epub 2009 Sep 16.

Radical prostatectomy findings in patients in whom active surveillance of prostate cancer fails.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Little data are available on radical prostatectomy findings in men who experience disease progression following active surveillance.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 470 men in our active surveillance program underwent annual repeat needle biopsies to look for progression defined as any Gleason pattern grade 4/5, more than 50% cancer on any core or cancer in more than 2 cores. Slides were available for review in 48 of 51 radical prostatectomies with progression.

RESULTS:

The average time between the first prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy was 29.5 months (range 13 to 70), with 44% and 75% of the patients showing progression by the second and third biopsy, respectively. There were 31 (65%) organ confined cases, of which 25 (52%) were Gleason score 6. Of 48 cases 17 (35%) had extraprostatic extension, 3 had seminal vesicle/lymph node involvement and 7 (15%) had positive margins. Mean total tumor volume was 1.3 cm(3) (range 0.02 to 10.8). Of the 48 tumors 13 (27%) were potentially clinically insignificant (organ confined, dominant nodule less than 0.5 cm(3), no Gleason pattern 4/5) and 19% (5 of 26) of the radical prostatectomies with a dominant tumor nodule less than 0.5 cm(3) demonstrated extraprostatic extension, 4 with Gleason pattern 4. All 10 tumors with a dominant nodule greater than 1 cm(3) were located predominantly anteriorly.

CONCLUSIONS:

Most progression after active surveillance occurs 1 to 2 years after diagnosis suggesting undersampling of more aggressive tumor rather than progression of indolent tumor. Even with progression most tumors have favorable pathology (27% potentially insignificant). A small percentage of men have advanced stage disease (pT3b or N1). The anterior region should be sampled in men on active surveillance.

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PMID:
19758635
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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