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J Neurochem. 2009 Nov;111(3):859-69. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06378.x. Epub 2009 Sep 8.

Peroxynitrite induces tyrosine residue modifications in synaptophysin C-terminal domain, affecting its interaction with src.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di SanitĂ , Viale Regina Elena, Rome, Italy.


Peroxynitrite is a potent oxidant that contributes to tissue damage in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously reported that treatment of rat brain synaptosomes with peroxynitrite induced post-translational modifications in pre- and post-synaptic proteins and stimulated soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion proteins attachment receptor complex formation and endogenous glutamate release. In this study we show that, following peroxynitrite treatment, the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin (SYP) can be both phosphorylated and nitrated in a dose-dependent manner. We found that tyrosine-phosphorylated, but not tyrosine-nitrated, SYP bound to the src tyrosine kinase and enhanced its catalytic activity. These effects were mediated by direct and specific binding of the SYP cytoplasmic C-terminal tail with the src homology 2 domain. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we mapped the SYP C-terminal tail tyrosine residues modified by peroxynitrite and found one nitration site at Tyr250 and two phosphorylation sites at Tyr263 and Tyr273. We suggest that peroxynitrite-mediated modifications of SYP may be relevant in modulating src signalling of synaptic terminal in pathophysiological conditions.

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