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J Dent Res. 2009 Aug;88(8):693-703. doi: 10.1177/0022034509341629.

Post-translational Regulation of Runx2 in Bone and Cartilage.

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  • 1Department of Orthopaedics, Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.


The Runx2 gene product is essential for mammalian bone development. In humans, Runx2 haploinsufficiency results in cleidocranial dysplasia, a skeletal disorder characterized by bone and dental abnormalities. At the molecular level, Runx2 acts as a transcription factor for genes expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Runx2 gene expression and protein function are regulated on multiple levels, including transcription, translation, and post-translational modification. Furthermore, Runx2 is involved in numerous protein-protein interactions, most of which either activate or repress transcription of target genes. In this review, we discuss expression of Runx2 during development as well as the post-translational regulation of Runx2 through modification by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation.

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