Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Neuroscience. 2009 Dec 15;164(3):1199-209. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.08.063. Epub 2009 Sep 4.

Effects of memantine on soluble Alphabeta(25-35)-induced changes in peptidergic and glial cells in Alzheimer's disease model rat brain regions.

Author information

  • 1Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027, Japan.


Soluble forms of amyloid-beta (Abeta) have been considered responsible for cognitive dysfunction prior to senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As its mechanism is not well understood, we examined the effects of repeated i.c.v. infusion of soluble Alphabeta(25-35) on peptidergic system and glial cells in the pathogenesis of AD. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of memantine on Abeta(25-35)-induced changes in peptidergic and glial systems. Infusion of Alphabeta(25-35) decreased the level of immunoreactive somatostatin (SS) and substance P (SP) in the hippocampus prior to neuronal loss or caspase activation, which is correlated with the loss of spine density and activation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Biochemical experiment with peptide-degrading enzymes, prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) and endopeptidase 24.15 (EP 24.15) activities demonstrated a concomitant increase with the activation of glial marker proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD11b in the Abeta-treated hippocampus. Double immunostaining experiments of EP 24.15 and GFAP/CD11b antibodies clearly demonstrated the co-localization of neuro peptidases with astrocytes and microglia. Treatment with memantine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist significantly attenuated Abeta(25-35)-induced changes of neuropeptides, their metabolizing enzymes, glial marker proteins, and activation of iNOS. Taken together, the data implies that memantine exerts its protective effects by modulating the neuropeptide system as a consequence of suppressing the glial cells and oxidative stress in AD model rat brain regions.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances

Publication Types

MeSH Terms


PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk