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Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2009 Sep;13(3):255-76. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1237692. Epub 2009 Sep 1.

Complex combined vascular malformations and vascular malformation syndromes affecting the extremities in children.

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  • 1Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Complex combined vascular malformations affecting extremities are an interesting group of vascular malformations because, in addition to the vascular channel anomalies present, they can be associated with other tissue changes and sometimes altered limb growth. At present, magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard imaging tool to evaluate such complex conditions in children because of its inherent tissue specificity and vascular capabilities that enables characterization of tissues and the vascular channel anomalies both for diagnosis and management of the patient. A brief review of some of these conditions is presented, including Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome, Parkes Weber syndrome, extensive diffuse low-flow venous malformations, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, Maffucci's syndrome, and Gorham-Stout disease.

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