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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Dec;29(12):1867-78. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.180. Epub 2009 Sep 2.

Anomalous venous blood flow and iron deposition in multiple sclerosis.

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  • 1Department of Physics, European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM), IFOM-IEO Campus, Centro Interdisciplinare Materiali e Interfacce Nanostrutturati, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is primarily an autoimmune disorder of unknown origin. This review focuses iron overload and oxidative stress as surrounding cause that leads to immunomodulation in chronic MS. Iron overload has been demonstrated in MS lesions, as a feature common with other neurodegenerative disorders. However, the recent description of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) associated to MS, with significant anomalies in cerebral venous outflow hemodynamics, permit to propose a parallel with chronic venous disorders (CVDs) in the mechanism of iron deposition. Abnormal cerebral venous reflux is peculiar to MS, and was not found in a miscellaneous of patients affected by other neurodegenerative disorders characterized by iron stores, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Several recently published studies support the hypothesis that MS progresses along the venous vasculature. The peculiarity of CCSVI-related cerebral venous blood flow disturbances, together with the histology of the perivenous spaces and recent findings from advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques, support the hypothesis that iron deposits in MS are a consequence of altered cerebral venous return and chronic insufficient venous drainage.

PMID:
19724286
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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