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Neurosurg Focus. 2009 Sep;27(3):E5. doi: 10.3171/2009.6.FOCUS09126.

Vagus nerve stimulation.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.


Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a key tool in the treatment of patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Although the mechanism of action of VNS remains poorly understood, this modality is now the most widely used nonpharmacological treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. The goal of this work is to review the history of VNS and provide information on recent advances and applications of this technology.

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