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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 15;106(37):15819-24. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0901216106. Epub 2009 Aug 31.

miR-147, a microRNA that is induced upon Toll-like receptor stimulation, regulates murine macrophage inflammatory responses.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major receptors that enable inflammatory cells to recognize invading microbial pathogens. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes. In this study, we found that a microRNA, miR-147, was induced upon stimulation of multiple TLRs and functioned as a negative regulator of TLR-associated signaling events in murine macrophages. We first demonstrated that the NMES1 transcript was a functional primary miR-147. miR-147 was induced in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages and under in vivo conditions in the lungs of LPS-treated mice. Expression of miR-147 was greater after cellular activation by TLR4 than after engagement of either TLR2 or TLR3, suggesting that maximal induction of miR-147 required activation of both NF-kappaB and IRF3. TLR4-induced miR-147 expression was both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent. The miR-147 promoter was responsive to TLR4 stimulation and both NF-kappaB and STAT1alpha bound to the miR-147 promoter. miR-147 mimics or induced expression of miR-147 decreased, whereas miR-147 knockdown increased inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages stimulated with ligands to TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4. These data demonstrate a negative-feedback loop in which TLR stimulation induces miR-147 to prevent excessive inflammatory responses.

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