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Indian J Urol. 2007 Oct;23(4):403-13. doi: 10.4103/0970-1591.36714.

The current evidence based medical management of vesicoureteral reflux: The Sickkids protocol.

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  • 1Division of Urology, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada.


Vesicoureteral reflux is a common clinical entity and is one of the keystones of the establishment of pediatric urology as a urological subspeciality. There has been continued evolution in the management of vesicoureteral reflux as new insights are gained on its role in renal damage. The optimal treatment algorithm remains controversial. This review aims to highlight the current literature on VUR and its association with urinary tract infections and renal damage. The protocol of management of a child with VUR followed at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto is described.


Vesico-ureteral reflux; nephropathy; urinary tract infection

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