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J Urol. 2009 Oct;182(4 Suppl):2007-14. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.06.012. Epub 2009 Aug 20.

Urinary incontinence in the CKiD cohort and health related quality of life.

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  • 1Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287-2101, USA.



Many children with chronic kidney disease have urinary incontinence due to urological disorders and/or a urine concentrating defect. We determined the prevalence and impact of incontinence on health related quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease.


The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study is a prospective, observational cohort of children recruited from 47 sites in the United States and Canada. Eligibility requirements are age 1 to 16 years and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30 to 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2). Demographics, continence status, glomerular filtration rate and physical examination were assessed at study entry. Health related quality of life was measured using the parent and child versions of PedsQL. PedsQL scores in participants 5 years old or older were compared among children who were toilet trained and not bed-wetting, bed-wetting or not toilet trained using multivariate linear regression.


Overall median age of the 329 participants was 12.5 years, 61.4% were male, 70% were white and 55.5% had a urological disorder. Of participants 71.4% were toilet trained at study enrollment, 23.1% had bed-wetting and 5.5% were not toilet trained. Children who were not yet toilet trained had an average total score that was 13.5 points lower (95% CI -25.2, -1.8) on the PedsQL child report than in those who were toilet trained (p = 0.02). Physical functioning (-15.0, 95% CI -28.2, -1.9) and school functioning (-15.3, 95% CI -29.8, -0.8) were also lower in this group (p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). On the PedsQL parent proxy report physical functioning (-14.2, 95% CI -26.7, -1.6) was similarly affected by child incontinence (p = 0.03).


Urinary incontinence is common in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and associated with lower health related quality of life on the PedsQL child and parent proxy reports. Early recognition of and treatment for urinary incontinence may improve health related quality of life in this population.

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