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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009 Sep;29(9):559-67. doi: 10.1089/jir.2009.0072.

Rotavirus and reovirus modulation of the interferon response.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA. barbara_sherry@ncsu.edu

Abstract

The mammalian reoviruses and rotaviruses have evolved specific mechanisms to evade the Type I interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Rotavirus likely represses the IFN response by at least 4 mechanisms. First, the rotavirus protein NSP1, most likely functioning as an E3 ligase, can induce proteasome-dependent degradation of the transcription factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7 to prevent their induction of IFN. Second, NSP1 can induce proteasome-dependent degradation of the ubiquitin ligase complex protein beta-TrCP, resulting in stabilization of I kappaB and concomitant failure of virus to activate NF-kappaB for induction of IFN. Third, rotavirus may sequester NF-kappaB in viroplasms. And fourth, rotavirus can prevent STAT1 and STAT2 nuclear translocation. The predominant mechanism for rotavirus inhibition of the IFN response is likely both rotavirus strain-specific and cell type-specific. The mammalian reoviruses also display strain-specific differences in their modulation of the IFN response. Reovirus activates RIG-I and IPS-1 for phosphorylation of IRF3. Reovirus-induced activation of MDA5 also participates in induction if IFN-beta, perhaps through activation of NF-kappaB. Reovirus likely inhibits the IFN response by at least 3 virus strain-specific mechanisms. First, the reovirus mu2 protein can induce an unusual nuclear accumulation of IRF9 and repress IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, most likely by disrupting IRF9 function as part of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex, ISGF3. Second, the reovirus sigma 3 protein can bind dsRNA and prevent activation of the latent antiviral effector protein PKR. And third, genetic approaches have identified the reovirus lambda 2 and sigma 2 proteins in virus strain-specific modulation of the IFN response, but the significance remains unclear. In sum, members of the family Reoviridae have evolved a variety of mechanisms to subvert the host's innate protective response.

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