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Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 1;170(7):837-46. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwp212. Epub 2009 Aug 19.

Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and pregnancy outcome.

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  • 1Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA.


The authors examined the association of serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with self-reported pregnancy outcome in Mid-Ohio Valley residents (2000-2006) highly exposed to PFOA. Data on 1,845 pregnancies within the 5 years preceding exposure measurement were analyzed for PFOA, and data on 5,262 pregnancies were analyzed for PFOS. Generalized estimating equations were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Neither PFOA nor PFOS showed any association with miscarriage or preterm birth. Preeclampsia was weakly associated with PFOA (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.9) and PFOS (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.7) exposures above the median. PFOA was not associated with an increase in low birth weight, but PFOS showed an increased risk above the median (adjusted odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.9) and a dose-response gradient. Birth defects were weakly associated with PFOA exposures above the 90th percentile (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). This study identified modest associations of PFOA with preeclampsia and birth defects and of PFOS with preeclampsia and low birth weight, but associations were small, limited in precision, and based solely on self-reported health outcomes.

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