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Appl Phys Lett. 2009 Jul 20;95(3):33501.

Study of electrical characterization of 2-methyl-9, 10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene doped with tungsten oxide as hole-transport layer.


An efficient p-doped transport layer composed of an ambipolar material, 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (MADN) and tungsten oxide (WO(3)) has been developed. The admittance spectroscopy studies show that the incorporation of WO(3) into MADN can greatly improve the hole injection and the conductivity of the device. Moreover, when this p-doped layer was incorporated in the tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum-based device, it achieved a current efficiency of 4.0 cdA and a power efficiency of 2.4 lmW at 20 mAcm(2). This work paves the way to simplify the fabrication of future p-i-n organic light-emitting devices with a single common ambipolar MADN material.

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