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Cell Signal. 2009 Dec;21(12):1846-56. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2009.07.020. Epub 2009 Aug 14.

Down-regulation of Cdx2 in colorectal carcinoma cells by the Raf-MEK-ERK 1/2 pathway.

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  • 1Laboratory of Developmental Genetics & Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, CB22 3AT, UK.

Abstract

Cdx2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that regulates normal intestinal cell differentiation. Cdx2 is frequently lost during progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is widely viewed as a colorectal tumour suppressor. A previous study suggested that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) may be responsible for Cdx2 down-regulation in CRC cells. Here we show that activation of PKC does indeed promote down-regulation of Cdx2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. However, PKC-dependent loss of Cdx2 is dependent upon activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. Indeed, specific activation of the ERK1/2 pathway using the conditional kinase DeltaRaf-1:ER is sufficient to inhibit Cdx2 transcription. The Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway is hyper-activated in a large fraction of colorectal cancers due to mutations in K-Ras and we show that treatment of CRC cell lines with MEK inhibitors causes an increase in Cdx2 expression. Furthermore, activation of the ERK1/2 pathway promotes the phosphorylation and proteasome-dependent degradation of the Cdx2 protein. The inhibitory effect of ERK1/2 upon Cdx2 in CRC cells is in sharp contrast to its stimulatory effect upon Cdx2 expression in trophectoderm and trophoblast stem cells. These results provide important new insights into the regulation of the Cdx2 tumour suppressor by linking it to ERK1/2, a pathway which is frequently activated in CRC.

PMID:
19686845
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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