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Drugs. 2009 Aug 20;69(12):1555-623. doi: 10.2165/11317030-000000000-00000.

Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria: an update.

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  • 1Human Safety Division, Veterinary Drugs Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Drug efflux pumps play a key role in drug resistance and also serve other functions in bacteria. There has been a growing list of multidrug and drug-specific efflux pumps characterized from bacteria of human, animal, plant and environmental origins. These pumps are mostly encoded on the chromosome, although they can also be plasmid-encoded. A previous article in this journal provided a comprehensive review regarding efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria. In the past 5 years, significant progress has been achieved in further understanding of drug resistance-related efflux transporters and this review focuses on the latest studies in this field since 2003. This has been demonstrated in multiple aspects that include but are not limited to: further molecular and biochemical characterization of the known drug efflux pumps and identification of novel drug efflux pumps; structural elucidation of the transport mechanisms of drug transporters; regulatory mechanisms of drug efflux pumps; determining the role of the drug efflux pumps in other functions such as stress responses, virulence and cell communication; and development of efflux pump inhibitors. Overall, the multifaceted implications of drug efflux transporters warrant novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance in bacteria.

PMID:
19678712
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2847397
Free PMC Article
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