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J Pathol. 2009 Oct;219(2):143-52. doi: 10.1002/path.2602.

Activated macrophages in the tumour microenvironment-dancing to the tune of TLR and NF-kappaB.

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  • 1Centre for Cancer and Inflammation, Institute of Cancer, Queen Mary University of London, UK.


A large number of variables have been identified which appear to influence macrophage phenotype within the tumour microenvironment. These include reciprocal chemical and physical interactions with tumour cells and with non-malignant cells of the tumour microenvironment, tissue oxygen tension, and the origin and prior experience of the particular macrophage population. In this review we outline the key evidence for these influences and consider how macrophage phenotype is acquired and the relevance of the TLR-NF-kappaB pathway.

2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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