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Schizophr Bull. 2009 Sep;35(5):865-73. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbp080. Epub 2009 Aug 6.

The evolution of cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: current practice and recent developments.

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  • 1School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Coupland Building, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.


Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients.

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