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Am J Transplant. 2009 Jun;9(6):1330-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02622.x.

The roles of dominos and nonsimultaneous chains in kidney paired donation.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.


Efforts to expand kidney paired donation have included matching nondirected donors (NDDs) to incompatible pairs. In domino paired donation (DPD), an NDD gives to the recipient of an incompatible pair, beginning a string of simultaneous transplants that ends with a living donor giving to a recipient on the deceased donor waitlist. Recently, nonsimultaneous extended altruistic donor (NEAD) chains were introduced. In a NEAD chain, the last donor of the string of transplants initiated by an NDD is reserved to donate at a later time. Our aim was to project the impact of each of these strategies over 2 years of operation for paired donation programs that also allocate a given number of NDDs. Each NDD facilitated an average of 1.99 transplants using DPD versus 1.90 transplants using NEAD chains (p = 0.3), or 1.0 transplants donating directly to the waitlist (p < 0.001). NEAD chains did not yield more transplants compared with simultaneous DPD. Both DPD and NEAD chains relax reciprocality requirements and rebalance the blood-type distribution of donors. Because traditional paired donation will leave many incompatible pairs unmatched, novel approaches like DPD and NEAD chains must be explored if paired donation programs are to help a greater number of people.

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