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Diabetologia. 2009 Oct;52(10):2182-9. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1465-x. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Regulation of skeletal muscle sucrose, non-fermenting 1/AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase (SNARK) by metabolic stress and diabetes.

Author information

  • 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:

Sucrose, non-fermenting 1/AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase (SNARK) is involved in cellular stress responses linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes. We determined the role of SNARK in response to metabolic stress and insulin action on glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

METHODS:

Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from normal glucose tolerant (n = 35) and type 2 diabetic (n = 31) men and women for SNARK expression studies. Primary myotube cultures were derived from biopsies obtained from normal glucose tolerant individuals for metabolic studies.

RESULTS:

SNARK (also known as NUAK2) mRNA expression was unaltered between normal glucose tolerant individuals and type 2 diabetic patients. SNARK expression was increased in skeletal muscle from obese (BMI >31 kg/m(2)) normal glucose tolerant individuals and type 2 diabetic patients (1.4- and 1.4-fold, respectively, p < 0.05) vs overweight (BMI <28 kg/m(2)) normal glucose tolerant individuals and type 2 diabetic patients. SNARK mRNA was increased in myotubes exposed to palmitate (12-fold; p < 0.01), or TNF-alpha (25-fold, p < 0.05), but not to oleate, glucose or IL-6, whereas expression of the AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 subunit was unaltered. Small interfering (si)RNA against SNARK reduced mRNA and protein in myotubes by 61% and 60%, respectively (p < 0.05). SNARK siRNA was without effect on basal or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake or lipid oxidation, and insufficient to rescue TNF-alpha- or palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:

Skeletal muscle SNARK expression is increased in human obesity, and in response to metabolic stressors, but not type 2 diabetes. Partial SNARK depletion failed to modify either glucose or lipid metabolism, or protect against TNF-alpha- or palmitate-induced insulin resistance in primary human myotubes.

PMID:
19652946
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2744802
Free PMC Article

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