Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Sep 15;170(6):717-29. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwp178. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Fish, vitamin D, and flavonoids in relation to renal cell cancer among smokers.

Author information

  • 1Epidemiology Division, Department of Public Health Sciences, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033-0855, USA.


Fish, vitamin D, flavonoids, and flavonoid-containing foods may have cardiovascular benefits and therefore may also reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. Risk was prospectively assessed in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1985-2002) cohort (N = 27,111; 15.2 mean person-years of follow-up). At enrollment, demographic, health, and dietary history information was recorded. Individuals who smoked less than 5 cigarettes/day, with chronic renal insufficiency or prior cancer, were excluded. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from Cox regression were used to compare upper quartiles (quartiles 2-4) with the lowest quartile (quartile 1) of dietary intake. Among 228 cases, risk (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with consumption of the flavonoid quercetin (hazard ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.9; P(trend) = 0.015) and Baltic herring (hazard ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.0; P(trend) < 0.001), with adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, blood pressure, alcohol use, physical activity, urban residence, and education. In geographically stratified models, the risks associated with herring and total fish intake appeared to be highest in the urban coast region, although the interaction was not statistically significant. These results suggest that the flavonoid quercetin may prevent renal cell cancer among male smokers. The possible risk associated with fish intake warrants further investigation before conclusions may be drawn.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk