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Public Health Nutr. 2010 Feb;13(2):289-96. doi: 10.1017/S1368980009990802. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Predictors and consequences of anaemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Tanzania.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. achatterjee24@post.harvard.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Predictors and consequences of childhood anaemia in settings with high HIV prevalence are not well known. The aims of the present study were to identify maternal and child predictors of anaemia among children born to HIV-infected women and to study the association between childhood anaemia and mortality.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and Hb measurements at 3-month intervals from birth were available for children. Information was also collected on malaria and HIV infection in the children, who were followed up for survival status until 24 months after birth.

SETTING:

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

SUBJECTS:

The study sample consisted of 829 children born to HIV-positive women.

RESULTS:

Advanced maternal clinical HIV disease (relative risk (RR) for stage > or =2 v. stage 1: 1.31, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.51) and low CD4 cell counts during pregnancy (RR for <350 cells/mm3 v. > or =350 cells/mm3: 1.58, 95 % CI 1.05, 2.37) were associated with increased risk of anaemia among children. Birth weight <2500 g, preterm birth (<34 weeks), malaria parasitaemia and HIV infection in the children also increased the risk of anaemia. Fe-deficiency anaemia in children was an independent predictor of mortality in the first two years of life (hazard ratio 1.99, 95 % CI 1.06, 3.72).

CONCLUSIONS:

Comprehensive care including highly active antiretroviral therapy to eligible HIV-infected women during pregnancy could reduce the burden of anaemia in children. Programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and antimalarial treatment to children could improve child survival in settings with high HIV prevalence.

PMID:
19650963
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3775572
Free PMC Article
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