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Heart Fail Clin. 2009 Oct;5(4):561-77. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2009.04.003.

Biomarkers of oxidative stress in heart failure.

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  • 1University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.


Oxidative stress is the relative excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) versus endogenous defense mechanisms. Abundant evidence has demonstrated the role of ROS, along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS), in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. Many biomarkers of oxidative stress have been studied as surrogates of oxidative damage. Recently, markers of impaired nitric oxide signaling have also been identified. Many biomarkers have been associated with prognosis and mortality, and some may even be modified by therapy. However, the clinical utility is limited by less than optimal standardization techniques and the lack of sufficient large-sized, multimarker prospective trials.

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