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Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 1;15(15):4954-62. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-3317. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Clinical and pharmacodynamic evaluation of metronomic cyclophosphamide, celecoxib, and dexamethasone in advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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  • 1Division of Medical Oncology, Azienda USL 6 of Livorno, Italy.



The aims of the present study were to evaluate the clinical activity and the pharmacodynamic profile of the novel schedule of a single i.v. standard dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX) immediately followed by an oral metronomic CTX regimen with celecoxib (CXB) and dexamethasone (DEX) in advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients.


Twenty-eight patients (68% docetaxel-resistant) received 500 mg/m2 CTX i.v. bolus on day 1 and, from day 2, 50 mg/day CTX p.o. plus 200 mg/twice a day CXB p.o. and 1 mg/day DEX p.o. until disease progression. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 were detected by ELISA, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR of VEGF and thrombospondin-1 gene expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell and of VE-cadherin (VE-C) in blood samples was done.


A confirmed prostate-specific antigen decrease of > or =50% from baseline was observed in 9 of 28 patients (32%). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3 months (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.2 months) and 21 months (95% confidence interval, 12.4-29.4 months), respectively. Toxicity was mild and no grade 3 to 4 toxicities occurred. A significant relationship was found between plasma VEGF and prostate-specific antigen values (r = 0.4223; P < 0.001). VEGF levels significantly increased in nonresponders, whereas the responder patients maintained significantly lower levels of VE-C gene expression after the beginning of the treatment if compared with nonresponder ones.


Metronomic CTX plus CXB and DEX showed favorable toxicity and activity profile in patients. VE-C gene expression and VEGF levels represent potentially useful pharmacodynamic markers for the clinical response.

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