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Cell Microbiol. 2009 Oct;11(10):1453-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01359.x. Epub 2009 Jul 20.

Plant immunity: a lesson from pathogenic bacterial effector proteins.

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  • 1Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.


Phytopathogenic bacteria inject an array of effector proteins into host cells to alter host physiology and assist the infection process. Some of these effectors can also trigger disease resistance as a result of recognition in the plant cell by cytoplasmic immune receptors. In addition to effector-triggered immunity, plants immunity can be triggered upon the detection of Pathogen/Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns by surface-localized immune receptors. Recent progress indicates that many bacterial effector proteins use a variety of biochemical properties to directly attack key components of PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity, providing new insights into the molecular basis of plant innate immunity. Emerging evidence indicate that the evolution of disease resistance in plants is intimately linked to the mechanism by which bacterial effectors promote parasitism. This review focuses on how these studies have conceptually advanced our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions.

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