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J Biosci Bioeng. 2009 Aug;108(2):99-104. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.02.017.

Nitrogen addition influences formation of aroma compounds, volatile acidity and ethanol in nitrogen deficient media fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains.

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  • 1Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Genetics and Biotechnology, (IBB/CGB-UTAD), Universidade de TrĂ¡s-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.


The effects of nitrogen addition into nitrogen deficient/depleted media on the release of aroma compounds post-fermentation were investigated in three commercial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which highlight the yeast strain effect as well as nitrogen effects. By comparing the two timings of nitrogen addition, prior to fermentation or later at stationary phase (72 h), it was shown that nitrogen addition at stationary phase significantly decreases ethanol and acetic acid formation and significantly increases the following compounds: 2-phenylethanol, ethyl isobutyrate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate and ethyl propionate in the three strains, and also isovaleric acid, isoamyl alcohol and ethyl isovalerate in both PYCC4072 and UCD522. The strain EC1118 produced significantly less medium chain fatty acids, hexanoic, octanoic and decanoic acids and their respective esters after nitrogen addition. Therefore, timing of nitrogen addition to a ferment media can vary the concentration of certain aroma compound and might provide a means for varying wine composition.

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