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Science. 2009 Jul 17;325(5938):280-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1171999.

Dyslexia: a new synergy between education and cognitive neuroscience.

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  • 1Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology and McGovern Institute for Brain Research, MIT, 43 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. gabrieli@mit.edu

Abstract

Reading is essential in modern societies, but many children have dyslexia, a difficulty in learning to read. Dyslexia often arises from impaired phonological awareness, the auditory analysis of spoken language that relates the sounds of language to print. Behavioral remediation, especially at a young age, is effective for many, but not all, children. Neuroimaging in children with dyslexia has revealed reduced engagement of the left temporo-parietal cortex for phonological processing of print, altered white-matter connectivity, and functional plasticity associated with effective intervention. Behavioral and brain measures identify infants and young children at risk for dyslexia, and preventive intervention is often effective. A combination of evidence-based teaching practices and cognitive neuroscience measures could prevent dyslexia from occurring in the majority of children who would otherwise develop dyslexia.

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PMID:
19608907
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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