Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Oct;23(10):1587-602. doi: 10.1210/me.2008-0421. Epub 2009 Jul 16.

Insulin acts through FOXO3a to activate transcription of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.


Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an important regulator of fibrinolysis. PAI-1 levels are elevated in type 2 diabetes, and this elevation correlates with macro- and microvascular complications of diabetes. However, the mechanistic link between insulin and up-regulation of PAI-1 is unclear. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of Forkhead-related transcription factor (Fox)O1, FoxO3a, and FoxC1 augment insulin's ability to activate the PAI-1 promoter. In addition, insulin treatment promotes the phosphorylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic Fox03a and an increase of cytoplasmic Fox03a. In contrast, insulin treatment led to the accumulation of phospho-Fox01 only in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, insulin also increased the ability of chimeric LexA-FoxO1, LexA-FoxO3a, and LexA-FoxC1 proteins to increase the activity of a LexA reporter, suggesting that the effect of insulin on FoxO3a was direct. Using small interfering RNA to specifically deplete each of the Fox transcription factors tested, we demonstrate that only reduction of FoxO3a inhibits insulin-increased PAI-1-Luc expression and PAI-1 mRNA accumulation. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm the presence of FoxO3a on the PAI-1 promoter. These results suggest that FoxO3a mediates insulin-increased PAI-1 gene expression.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk