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West J Nurs Res. 2009 Oct;31(6):787-98. doi: 10.1177/0193945909338851. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

Correlates of heavy smoking among alcohol-using methadone maintenance clients.

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  • 1University of California, Los Angeles, USA.


This cross-sectional study examines predictors of heavy smoking among 256 male and female methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) clients from five MMT clinics in the Los Angeles area. The authors find that women report lower rates of heavy smoking than men (47% vs. 54%, respectively), in concordance with current literature pointing to gender differences in smoking behaviors. In particular, men who report heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and recent heroin use are more likely to report heavy smoking compared with men not reporting these factors. Women who report recent heroin use, a lifetime history of sex trade, and who have been ill enough to require a blood transfusion also have greater odds of reporting heavy cigarette smoking. Findings from this study may aid not only in designing gender-based smoking cessation programs for MMT clients but also in addressing the gender-based issues related to smoking in such a population.

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