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J Exp Med. 2009 Aug 3;206(8):1653-60. doi: 10.1084/jem.20090246. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

IL-9 as a mediator of Th17-driven inflammatory disease.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School and the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA.


We report that like other T cells cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, Th17 cells also produce interleukin (IL) 9. Th17 cells generated in vitro with IL-6 and TGF-beta as well as purified ex vivo Th17 cells both produced IL-9. To determine if IL-9 has functional consequences in Th17-mediated inflammatory disease, we evaluated the role of IL-9 in the development and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. The data show that IL-9 neutralization and IL-9 receptor deficiency attenuates disease, and this correlates with decreases in Th17 cells and IL-6-producing macrophages in the central nervous system, as well as mast cell numbers in the regional lymph nodes. Collectively, these data implicate IL-9 as a Th17-derived cytokine that can contribute to inflammatory disease.

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