Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Pediatrics. 2009 Aug;124(2):e203-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3466. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

Reducing immunization discomfort in 4- to 6-year-old children: a randomized clinical trial.

Author information

  • 1Pediatric Medical Group, Berkeley, California 94705, USA.



The goal was to test a multifaceted distraction method designed to reduce injection-associated pain in school-aged children.


A clinical trial evaluated 41 children, 4 to 6 years of age, who were given 3 standard prekindergarten immunizations; 21 were assigned randomly to an office routine control group, whereas 20 received a multifaceted, discomfort-reducing intervention. The intervention added verbal suggestions of diminished sensation and a visual focusing activity to the use of ethyl chloride, an established pain-reducing measure. The distraction materials used for the intervention consisted of topical ethyl chloride spray, an improvised, plastic, multipronged arm gripper, and a vibrating instrument descending on the contralateral arm, which provided the focusing task and visual distraction.


According to patient and parent Faces Pain Scale-Revised scores and nonblinded, video-taped observations scored according to the face-legs-activity-crying-consolability method, the intervention group showed highly significant reductions in pain and discomfort, compared with the control group (patient self-report, P < .0013; parent report, P < .0002; observation score, P < .0001).


This multifaceted distraction intervention reduced significantly the pain and discomfort of childhood immunizations in children 4 to 6 years of age.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk