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Vaccine. 2009 Aug 20;27(38):5174-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.070. Epub 2009 Jul 9.

Long lasting immunity in chickens induced by a single shot of influenza vaccine prepared from inactivated non-pathogenic H5N1 virus particles against challenge with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

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  • 1Avian Biologics Department, Kyoto Biken Laboratories, Inc., 24-16 Makishima-cho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0041, Japan.


An influenza vaccine was prepared from inactivated whole particles of the non-pathogenic strain A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (H5N1) virus using an oil adjuvant containing anhydromannitol-octadecenoate-ether (AMOE). The vaccine was injected intramuscularly into five 4-week-old chickens, and 138 weeks after vaccination, they were challenged intranasally with 100 times 50% chicken lethal dose of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1). All 5 chickens survived without exhibiting clinical signs of influenza, although 2 days post-challenge, 3 vaccinated chickens shed limited titres of viruses in laryngopharyngeal swabs.

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