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J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Sep 25;125(3):487-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.06.026. Epub 2009 Jul 3.

Anti-inflammatory effect of Inonotus obliquus, Polygala senega L., and Viburnum trilobum in a cell screening assay.

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  • 1Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, 196 Innovation Drive, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 6C5, Canada.



The purpose of the study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), Polygala senega (Senega) and Viburnum trilobum (Cranberry) bark extract fractions from locally produced materials in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced murine macrophage RAW 164.7 cells.


Four fractions from each of the three extracts were obtained: (80% ethanol extracted; Fa), (water-soluble polysaccharide fraction; Fb), (Polyphenolic fraction; Fc) and (ETOAc/H(2)O extracted fraction; Fd). These extract fractions were tested in the cell screening system at 50,100 and 500 microg/ml for their ability to inhibit LPS induced inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-6. Supernatants from LPS alone treated cells were used as control. The cytokines in the cell culture supernatants following treatments with extract fractions were quantified by ELISA method, using 96 well ELISA plates.


All fractions of the extracts significantly inhibited (p<0.05) the levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha except the polyphenolic Fc fraction of Senega which showed an increased production of IL-6. Furthermore, each fraction showed a dose-dependant anti-inflammatory effect. Nitric oxide production was not affected by cranberry and senega, while Chaga significantly reduced NO production in murine macrophage cell assay.


These results demonstrate that the extracts obtained from the root of Polygala senega L., bark of Viburnum trilobum, and the mushroom Inonotus obliquus possess anti-inflammatory properties when tested in a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell system.

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