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Med Clin North Am. 2009 Jul;93(4):819-36, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2009.03.009.

Hepatic encephalopathy: pathophysiology and emerging therapies.

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  • 1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


Hepatic encephalopathy is characterized by neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver failure. Severe hepatic encephalopathy is an indication for liver transplantation as it portends poor outcome. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy involves correction of precipitating factors such as sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding, medications, and electrolyte imbalance. Effective therapies include lactulose and antibiotics such as neomycin, metronidazole, and rifaximin.

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