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Expert Rev Med Devices. 2009 Jul;6(4):401-10. doi: 10.1586/erd.09.23.

Artificial pancreas: an emerging approach to treat Type 1 diabetes.

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  • 1Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Metabolic Research Laboratories, Box 289, Level 4, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.


Intensive insulin therapy aimed at achieving normal glucose levels significantly reduces the complications that are associated with diabetes but is also associated with an increased risk of low glucose levels (hypoglycemia). The growing use of continuous glucose monitors has stimulated the development of the artificial pancreas, a closed-loop insulin-delivery system aimed at restoring near-normal glucose levels while reducing the risk of hypoglycemia. The artificial pancreas comprises three components: a continuous glucose monitor, an insulin infusion pump and a control algorithm delivering insulin according to real-time glucose readings. In this article, we review closed-loop glucose control, including its components, development, testing and clinical application.

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