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J Biomed Opt. 2009 May-Jun;14(3):034048. doi: 10.1117/1.3139850.

Multiphoton adaptation of a commercial low-cost confocal microscope for live tissue imaging.

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  • 1Baylor College of Medicine, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


The Nikon C1 confocal laser scanning microscope is a relatively inexpensive and user-friendly instrument. We describe a straightforward method to convert the C1 for multiphoton microscopy utilizing direct coupling of a femtosecond near-infrared laser into the scan head and fiber optic transmission of emission light to the three-channel detector box. Our adapted system can be rapidly switched between confocal and multiphoton mode, requires no modification to the original system, and uses only a few custom-made parts. The entire system, including scan mirrors and detector box, remain under the control of the user-friendly Nikon EZ-C1 software without modification.

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