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Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Sep;33(9):978-90. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.133. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

Depot-specific differences in inflammatory mediators and a role for NK cells and IFN-gamma in inflammation in human adipose tissue.

Author information

  • 1Department of Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239-3098, USA. orourkro@ohsu.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adipose tissue is a primary in vivo site of inflammation in obesity. Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), when compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), imparts an increased risk of obesity-related comorbidities and mortality, and exhibits differences in inflammation. Defining depot-specific differences in inflammatory function may reveal underlying mechanisms of adipose-tissue-based inflammation.

METHODS:

Stromovascular cell fractions (SVFs) from VAT and SAT from obese humans undergoing bariatric surgery were studied in an in vitro culture system with transcriptional profiling, flow cytometric phenotyping, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intracellular cytokine staining.

RESULTS:

Transcriptional profiling of SVF revealed differences in inflammatory transcript levels in VAT relative to SAT, including elevated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) transcript levels. VAT demonstrated a broad leukocytosis relative to SAT that included macrophages, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. IFN-gamma induced a proinflammatory cytokine expression pattern in SVF and adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). NK cells, which constitutively expressed IFN-gamma, were present at higher frequency in VAT relative to SAT. Both T and NK cells from SVF expressed IFN-gamma on activation, which was associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in macrophages.

CONCLUSION:

These data suggest involvement of NK cells and IFN-gamma in regulating ATM phenotype and function in human obesity and a potential mechanism for the adverse physiologic effects of VAT.

PMID:
19564875
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3150185
Free PMC Article

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