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Stem Cell Rev. 2009 Sep;5(3):181-94. doi: 10.1007/s12015-009-9079-8. Epub 2009 Jun 26.

Research on human-animal entities: ethical and regulatory aspects in Europe.

Author information

  • Department of Medical Ethics, Lund University, BMC C13, 221 84, Lund, Sweden. Kristina.Hug@med.lu.se


To review the ethical and regulatory issues related to the research on human-animal entities at various stages. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008. The article presents the overall picture of the research on human-animal entities in Europe, including the public opinion and the country-specific regulations and guidelines regarding such research, discusses the ethical issues, including both arguments opposing and favoring such research, as well as discusses and clarifies the terminology used. Creation of human-animal entities with the potential for what may be viewed as human faculties raises profound questions concerning the rights and responsibilities of human beings. There is great need for informed discussions and interchanges between the expert researchers, ethicists, policymakers, lawyers and the public in general to come to consensus regarding the issues discussed in this paper. Suggestions regarding these rights and responsibilities are overviewed.

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